Basic digital ICs form the backbone of all digital logic circuits. Two main families are the Transistor-Transistor Logic (or TTL) and CMOS-based ICs. TTL ICs work with a power rail of +5 V DC, whilst CMOS ICs can work with +/- 15 V DC rails.
The TTL IC family series starts with numerals 74 and is popularly known as the 7400 series. The CMOS family starts with numeral 40 and known as the 4000 series. There are also 7400 series made using CMOS technology. CMOS ICs are more prone to statics and must be handled with care so as not to damage the ICs.
The two popular IC manufacturers producing logic ICs are Texas Instruments and Motorola.
Click the two links below for more information:
7400 Series TTL family
4000 Series CMOS family